STONEHENGE
Wiltshire, England

Stonehenge lies on the Salisbury Plain in the county of Wiltshire, England.  The whole area is regarded as mystical, with an abundance of ley lines, and is widley accepted as the center of the crop Circle phenomenon. Stonehenge itsel was constructed in three stages. The first began in about 3,000BC, when a cicular ditch was dug around the site and a raised bank two yards high and 106 yards in diamiter was formed.  Just inside the bank, 56 shallow holes were dug and then refilled and the first rock, the 'Heel Stone', was introduced. This was the position to mark the axis of sunrise at the summer solstice.  Two smaller entrance stones were put in place, then 40 wooden post, marking positions of the sun,were erected.
In around 2,000BC, a two-mile avenue to the River avon was created. From south-west Wales, the builders imported 82 'blue stones', weighing over four tons each.  To reach the site, they would have to travel 240 miles over land and water.  These bluestones were used to create a double circle inside the site.  It is believed that the builders never finished this design because they already had the idea to errect the third and most impressive phase.
This started in around 1,900BC, with the selection of 75 loose blocks of sandstone, known as sarsens, from Avebury, 20 miles away.  Using rollers and ropes, these 25 ton, 17-feet long rocks were pulled to the site where they were then shaped and lifted into upright positions.  The architectual detail of this stage is phenomenal, and the lintel stones that cap the pillars are actually curved to fit in the large circle.  The Welsh bluestones were repositioned, and the sculpture was then complete.

In each stage, the stones were placed at specific points demonstrating the position of the sun and moon at important times.  The site was in continual use until about 1,000BC, but we still don't excactly know what it was used for.  Very little human or cultural debris has been found on the site, so there can be no difenitive answers.
Some experts say that the absence of historic litter leads to the suggestion that the structuer was a temple or a sacred site.  Many of the other 900 stone circles in Britain served many uses and were often meeting places, so they often have remnants of the acient day-to-day life.
In the 17th century historians believed the structure had been built by ancient celtic Priests, and many modern druids feel it is their right to perform rituals and ceremonies at the site.  There are now no longer allowed to, and for good reason.  Not only was damage occuring to the area, but no modern Druids have no connection to their Celtic namesakes.  Anyway, Stonhenge was built 1,000 years before the celtic druids existed.
Unfortunally, in the last few hundred years many of the stones have been stolen, lost or collapsed, and poor restoration work has been performed on some of the stones that still remail.  But the magic of the site and the design never dissapates.  One ledgend says the most famous of all britain's magicians, Merlin, summond the stones and set them in place.  It is a story in keeping with the mystical tradition of the area.  Maybe the simple fact is that the modern mind has not imagined the true use of the site yet.

Nazca Lines
Southern Peru

The Nazca Lines are a series of ancient geoglyphs located in the Nazsca Dessert  in southern Peru. The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 kilometres (50 mi) between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas De Jummana about 400 km south o fLima. Although some local geoglyphs resemble Paracas motif, scholars believe the Nazca Lines were created by the Nazca Culture between 400 and 650 AD.   The hundreds of individual figures range in complexity from simple lines to stylizedHummingbirds, Spiders, Monkeys, Fish, Sharks Orcas, Limas and lizards
The lines are shallow designs made in the ground by removing the ubiquitous reddish pebbles and uncovering the whitish ground beneath. Hundreds are simple lines or geometric shapes; more than seventy are designs of animal, bird, fish or human figures. The largest figures are over 200 metres (660 ft) across. Scholars differ in interpreting the purpose of the designs, but they generally ascribe religious significance to them.
After people traveled over the area by plane in the 1930s and saw the Nazca Lines from the air, anthropologists started studying them. One of the issues that intrigued scholars was to try to understand how they were created.
Scholars have theorized the Nazca people could have used simple tools and surveying equipment to construct the lines. Studies have found wooden stakes in the ground at the end of some lines, which support this theory. One such stake was carbon dated and the basis for establishing the age of the design complex. Researcher Joe Nikkel of the University of Kentucky has reproduced the figures by using tools and technology available to the Nazca people. The National Geographic called his work "remarkable in its exactness" when compared to the actual lines. With careful planning and simple technologies, a small team of people could recreate even the largest figures within days, without any aerial assistance, most of the lines form a trench about 15 centimetres (5.9 in) deep.
The lines were made by removing the reddish-brown iron oxcide coated pebbles that cover the surface of the Nazca desert. When the gravel is removed, the light-colored earth beneath shows in lines of sharply contrasting color and tone. The Nazca "drew" several hundred simple but huge curvilinear animal and human figures by this technique. In total, the earthworks project is huge and complex: the area encompassing the lines is nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi), and the largest figures can span nearly 270 metres (890 ft). The extremely dry, windless, and constant climate of the Nazca region has preserved the lines well. The Nazca desert is one of the driest on Earth and maintains a temperature around 25 °C (77 °F) all year round. The lack of wind has helped keep the lines uncovered and visible to the present day.

 

 

Some individuals propose alternative theories. Jim Woodmann believes that the Nazca Lines could not have been made without some form of manned flight to see the figures properly. Based on his study of available technology, he suggests that a hot air baloon was the only possible means of flight. To test this hypothesis, Woodmann made a hot-air balloon using materials and techniques which he understood were available to the Nazca people. The balloon flew, after a fashion. Most scholars have rejected Woodmann's thesis as ad-hoc because of the lack of any evidence of such balloons.

Swiss author Erich von Daniken suggests the Nazca lines and other complex constructions represent higher technological knowledge than he believes existed when the glyphs were created. Von Däniken maintains that the Nazca lines in Peru are runways of an ancient airfield that was used by extraterrestrials mistaken by the natives to be their gods.
What do you believe?

EASTER ISLAND
Polynesian Island, Pacific ocean

Easter Island is a famous and very isolated island in the southeast Pacific Ocean. It is well-known for its giant stone statues, the moai, created sometime between the years 1000 and 1700 – likely towards the earlier portion of that range. These statues number 887, and at one point there were about 10 islanders for every statue, for an island population of 10,000 or so. The island’s total area is 63 square miles (163.6 km2).Easter Island is also among the youngest inhabited territories on Earth.

The first and only people ever to live on Easter Island were from an individual group of Polynesians (group of 1000’s of islands in pacific ocean) that, once finding Easter, then had no contact with any other races. Until of course, that fateful day in 1722 when, on Easter Sunday, Dutch commander Jacob Roggeveen, became the first European to “discover” the island. Hence the name Easter Island.

Easter Island is often taken as a case study of civilizational collapse. In the 17th-18th century there was a drastic decline in civilization, during which the island’s forests were entirely depleted, boats could no longer be built, destroying the fishing industry. There were also numerous civil wars that would have been extremely bloody. Archaeological evidence indicates that chickens and rats became the primary diet of the islanders, and there were even indications of cannibalism. By the time the Europeans arrived in 1722, there were barely 1,000 inhabitants on island.

Prior to the collapse of Easter Island’s civilization in the 17th century, there was a Golden Age, during which the two-ton moai statues were constructed. These iconic statues had eyes painted white and were all pointed towards the sea. The islanders lacked metal tools, and shaped the statues using only basalt stone tools. The quarry for the statue material all originated from one point on the island, and the statues were dragged to their locations by the use of large wooden frames. Given how few people there were on the island and how massive the statues are, conspiracy theorists have long speculated the denizens of Easter Island had special assistance from extraterrestrials, though no anthropologists take this very seriously.